THE DETERMINING ROLE OF THE MICROBIOME IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF ALLERGIC DISEASES. PROSPECTS FOR PERSONALIZED LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS AND THERAPY
The review is devoted to a separate analysis of cause-and-effect relationships in allergology. Evaluating the assumptions made more than a hundred years ago, canonical for modern specialists, the well-known facts are listed that change the distorted sequence of the causes of an allergic disease: the consequences must be perceived as clinical manifestations.
Emphasis is placed on the fact that “allergy” is a separate manifestation of inflammation, which from a pathophysiological point of view is a universal, typical response to the effect of a phlogogen, regardless of its nature, including the carrying antigenic factor. This determines the stages in the dynamics of the occurrence of an allergic reaction. The causative factor is the introduction of phlogogen into the internal environment of the macroorganism. As a result of the antigenic structure of the phlogogen, the immune system induces a response, which is expressed in the appointment of an IgE-mediated reaction to interact with protein structures in the normal mode for it. The characteristics of “hypersensitivity” are inherent in any acute inflammatory reaction.
An analysis is given of the evolutionary development of defense mechanisms that involve IgE-mediated reactions inherent exclusively in placental mammals as the highest link in the phylogenesis of the animal world. This fact excludes the induction of IgE as a cause of an allergic reaction from current ideas.
The mechanism of resorption of weak electrolytes, which include aqueous solutions of proteins, through the mucous membranes and skin is described.
The decisive importance of the microbiome in the process of destruction of biological substrates, including proteins, which takes place at the border of the external and internal environment of the macroorganism, is emphasized.
The completeness of the breakdown of protein structures to amino acids ensures the tolerance of the immune system.
The microbiome is an integral chimeric organ of a macroorganism; attempts to evaluate the role of the individual components of such an organ lead to a distorted view of reality. The principles on which the sustainability and reproduction of the microbiome microecosystem are based need to be understood as soon as possible. Without this, it is impossible to formulate full-fledged, and therefore effective, approaches in targeted, personalized treatment of allergic conditions.
Proposals are made to develop additional methods for the laboratory diagnosis of allergic diseases using the principles of epitope allergology, which should provide additional information when choosing personalized therapies. It is stated that ASIT can be applied exclusively for palliative purposes
Bergmann K-C, Ring J (eds): History of Allergy. Chem Immunol Allergy. Basel, Karger, 2014, vol 100, pp 2-14. https://doi.org/10.1159/000358422Department of Respiratory Allergy & Applied Immunology V.P. Chest Institute University of Delhi Delhi 110007, India moc.liamg@icpvramukjar
Bannon, G.A., Ogawa, T. (2006). Evaluation of available IgE-binding epitope data and its utility in bioinformatics. Mol Nutrition Food Res, 50(7), 638–644. https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200500276
Gushchin I.S. Evolutionary background of allergic reactivity: mast cells, FcεRI, IgE - three components of the effector phase of the allergic response // Russian Journal of Allergy. - 2018. - Vol. 15. - N. 4. - P. 5-16. https://doi.org/10.36691/RJA131
Hellman LT, Akula S, Thorpe M, Fu Z. Tracing the origins of IgE, mast cells, and allergies by studies of wild animals. Front. Immunol., 19 December 2017. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2017.01749
Akula S, Mohammadamin S, Hellman L. Fc receptors for immunoglobulins and their appearance during vertebrate evolution. PLoS One. 2014;9(5):e96903. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096903
Nimmerjahn F, Ravetch JV. Fcgamma receptors as regulators of immune responses. Nat Rev Immunol. 2008;8:34-47. doi : 10.1038/nri2206. https://doi.org/10.1038/nri2206
Schleimer RP, Berdnikovs S. Etiology of epithelial barrier dysfunction in patients with type 2 inflammatory diseases. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017;139(6):1752–1761. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2017.04.010
Araviyskaya ER, Sokolovskiy EV. Microbiome: a new era in normal and pathological changes skin studies. First Pavlov State Medical University of St. Petersburg. Vestnik Dermatologii i Venerologii 2016; 3: 102–109.https://doi.org/10.25208/0042-4609-2016-92-3-102-109
Dickson RP, Erb-Downward JR, Martinez FJ, Huffnagle GB. The Microbiome and the Respiratory Tract. Annu Rev Physiol. 2016;78:481‐504. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-physiol-021115-105238
Lloyd-Price, J., Abu-Ali, G. & Huttenhower, C. The healthy human microbiome. Genome Med 8, 51 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13073-016-0307-y
William R. Wikoff, Andrew T. Anfora, Jun Liu, Peter G. Schultz, Scott A. Lesley, Eric C. Peters, Metabolomics analysis reveals large effects of gut microflora on mammalian blood metabolites. PNAS March 10, 2009 106 (10) 3698-3703. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0812874106
Baron S, editor. Medical Microbiology. 4th edition. Galveston (TX): University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston; 1996. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7627/13. Howard L Weiner 1, Andre Pires da Cunha, Francisco Quintana, Henry Wu. Oral tolerance. Immunol Rev 2011 May;241(1):241-59. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-065X.2011.01017.x
Severine Cao Taylor J. Feehley Cathryn R. Nagler. The role of commensal bacteria in the regulation of sensitization to food allergens. The gut microbiome/ Volume588, Issue22: November 17, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2014.04.026
William Zhao, BS*; Hsi-en Ho, MD y; Supinda Bunyavanich, MD, MPH. The gut microbiome in food allergy. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology/VOLUME 122, ISSUE 3, P276-282, MARCH 01, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anai.2018.12.012
Jan Leps. Diversity and Ecosystem Function/Wiley Online Library, 07 January 2013. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118452592.ch11
Breitenbach M, Ferreira F, Jilek A, Swoboda I, Ebner C, Hoffmann-Sommergruber K, Briza P, Scheiner O, Kraft D. Biological and immunological importance of Bet v 1 isoforms. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1996;409:117-26. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-5855-2_16
Mary Johnson. Detergents: Triton X-100, Tween-20, and More. MATER METHODS 2013;3:163. https://dx.doi.org/10.13070/mm.en.3.163
Georgios Rentzos, 1 Vanja Lundberg, Per-Ove Stotzer,3 Teet Pullerits, Esbjörn Telemo. Intestinal allergic inflammation in birch pollen allergic patients in relation to pollen season, IgE sensitization profile and gastrointestinal symptoms. Clin Transl Allergy. 2014; 4: 19, May 2014. https://doi.org/10.1186/2045-7022-4-19
Hirohisa Saito, Teruko Ishizaka, Kimishige Ishizaka. Mast Cells and IgE: From History to Today. Allergology International. Volume 62, Issue 1, 2013, Pages 3-12. https://doi.org/10.2332/allergolint.13-RAI-0537
Marek Jutel, Katarzyna Solarewicz-Madejek, Sylwia Smolinska. Recombinant allergens. The present and the future. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, Volume 8, 2012 – Issue 10, Pages 1534-1543. https://doi.org/10.4161/hv.22064
Sanchez-Trincado JL, Gomez-Perosanz M, Reche PA. Fundamentals and Methods for T- and B-Cell Epitope Prediction. J Immunol Res. 2017;2680160. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/2680160
David Stanek, Dana M Bis-Brewer, Cima Saghira, Matt C Danzi, Pavel Seeman, Petra Lassuthova, Stephan Zuchner, Prot2HG: a database of protein domains mapped to the human genome, Database, Volume 2020, 2020, baz161. https://doi.org/10.1093/database/baz161