ROLE OF CELLS OF INNATE IMMUNITY IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF MALIGNANT TUMORS OF THE BRAIN
This review presents data on changes in the activity of cells of innate and acquired immunity, namely leukocytes, neutrophils, platelets and lymphocytes in various malignant human tumors, including brain tumors. It was shown that against the background of immunosuppression of specific immunity, especially antitumor reactions, which are caused by factors such as prostaglandin E2, TGF-β, indolamine-2,3-dioxigenase (IDO) and interleukin (IL) -10, which leads to a decrease the sensitivity of T cells to proinflammatory signals and the ineffectiveness of the presentation of tumor antigens to immune cells, activation and polarization of innate immunity cells, namely neutrophils, macrophages and platelets, occurs.
Macrophages are important immune cells of the microenvironment in a tumor site that change their phenotype from M1 cells with antitumor activity to M2, which enhance tumor growth. The release of metalloprotheasis from platelet α -granules destroys the components of the extracellular matrix, increases the ability of cancer cells to pass through the endothelial barrier, penetrate the parenchyma and create metastatic tissue damage. Previously, neutrophils were mainly considered as cells of the body’s first line of defense, mainly with antimicrobial functions, but now they are regarded as cells with tumor-stimulating, “protumorogenic” activity, since in many types of cancer an increased level of neutron is determined with a reduced content of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and this is associated with a poor prognosis of the disease. The review analyzes the hypothesis that there are three subpopulations of neutrophils in cancer: normal high density neutrophils, immature low density neutrophils (G-MDSC) and large mature low density neutrophils. These types of cells have different functions, for example, neutrophils with high density are antitumor, and with low density - cells that can stimulate tumor growth. ]. Neutrophils realize their activity through molecules such as neutrophilic elastase (NE), cathepsin, arginase 1 (ARG1), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Multidirectional changes in the parts of the immune system depend on the histogenesis and degree of malignancy of the tumors and indicate differentiated use immunotropic drugs in cancer patients, some should suppress the activity of innate immunity cells, others stimulate the acquired immune response.
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